Nord Friesland (North Frisia)
Köge – Watten – Inseln (reclaimed land, mudflats, islands)
by Walter Raabe, 1994, Germany
This book about the extreme northwest part of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, contains over thirty aerial photographs of this unique area as well as the history and modern day description of same. Two useful maps also appear: North Frisia (from the Danish border south to the Eider River), showing towns, islands, and koogs; and North Frisia in 1231, prior to the devasting flood of 1362 which re-arranged the land and sandbars.
First, a list of words from the German text with their English meanings:
au/aue = water meadow, pasture
bauernhof = farm
damm = dam, dike
deich = dike
dorf = village
en = plural word ending
flut = flood, high tide
geschicte = history, story
hafen = harbor, port
hallig = small island
haus = house
hof = farm, courtyard
horn = peak, cape
inseln = islands
jahr/jahre = year
jahrhundert = century
koog = reclaimed (from body of water) land, polder
kreis = county
land = land
meer = sea, ocean
moor = bog, swamp, peatbog, fen, marshland
nord = north
Nordsee = North Sea
ost/oest = east
polder = reclaimed land, koog
sand = sand, sandbank
see = lake, pond
stadt = city
strand = beach, seashore
strom = flood, flow, broad river/stream
sturm = storm
sud = south
tief = deep, extreme
tiel = part
vieh = cattle
warft/werft = dock
wasser = water
watten = mud-flats
wattenmeer = shoals, shallows, mud-flats
weg = way
west = west
Items of interest from the book, in page order:
p.2 Full-page map of North Frisia with towns, main roads, islands,reclaimed land, and sandbanks indicated. Some small villages do not appear. Note the many koogs along the edge of the mainland – this is the land that was reclaimed from the salty sea (reclaim = to make available for human use by changing natural conditions).
p.12 Photo of a Paulsen. Caption: 1871 recruit Martin Paulsen – here with his legendary telescope – the Hallig Suderoog (island soouth of Pellworm).
p.13 Photo of an American B-17 which crashed at Suderoogsand during World War II.
p.15, on right, 3rd paragraph includes The building of ships in Husum is a long tradition since 1796. see photo on p. 16.
p.17, on right, low on page – 1/3 of the poem Die Stadt (The City) by (the famous) Theodor Storm from Husum. Dichter = poet. In English in its entirety:
By the grey shore, by the grey sea
And set apart, lies the town;
The fog lies heavy on the roofs,
And through the stillness roars the sea,
Dully around the town.
No forest murmurs, nor do birds
Sing contantly in May;
Only the goose o;n aautumn nights,
With its harsh cry, flies by,
On the shore the grasses sway.
Yet all my heart belongs to you,
You grey town by the sea;
The magic of my youth, evermore
Will rest and smilke on you, on you,
You grey town by the sea.
p.19, on right, 3rd paragr. – Harro Feddersen from Husum in 1685 (Jones Co. IA name).
p.21, on right, last sentence – Klaus Groth from Dithmarsch, just south of the Eider River (Jones Co. IA name).
p. 23, left, last paragraph – Clausen (Jones Co. IA name).
p. 23 Leck (town) is discussed.
p.24, 27, & 30 – Hansen (Jones Co. IA name).
p.34 & 35 are about the major floods of 1362, 1634, 1825, 1962, 1990. Perhaps more.
p.38 includes Busch (Jones Co. IA name).
p.38 Map of North Frisia in 1231, prior to the devastating flood of 1362 which re-arranged land and sandbanks. The dotted lines indicate the modern shapes of the islands.
p.40 thru 71 are aerial photographs in color of various parts of North Frisia, probably taken from the Cessna airplane mentionned in the closing statements. The photos are from the south part of NF to the north but not in strict order. An alpha-order list of places follows the by-page description:
p.40 west of St. Peter-Ording, a city in Eiderstedt, south NF.
p.41 St. Peter-Ording, taken from the west. Is upper left of p.40. Per caption the beach structures were built on stilts (piers).
p.42 Garding, town in south NF.
p.43 Tönning, town in south NF on the Eider River.
p.44 north of Westerhever, town in south NF.
p.45 on the Süderoog island, southwest of Pellworm.
p.46 Shipworks at Husum, city on lower right on map on p.2.
p.47 Husum. The Rathaus (city hall) is in the upper right of photo, tan with dark roof.
p.48 & 49 Duke Adolf’s castle at Husum, completed in 1583.
p.50 Bredstedt, city north of Husum.
p.51 Hamburger Hallig (island), west of Bredstedt.
p.52 Sönke Nissen-Koog, west of Bredstedt, in middle of map on p. 2.
p.53 Dagebüll, town inland from Föhr, with ferry to Föhr & Amrum. see p.58.
p.54 Niebüll, city north of Bredstedt and Husum, until 1970 the county seat of South Tondern.
p.55 the high school complex at Leck (city).
p.56 Gotteskoog lakes, north of Niebüll.
p.57 Hindenburgdamm, the road to Sylt, looking west at Sylt.
p.58 ferry from Dagebüll to Föhr & Amrum. see p. 53.
p.59 Wyk, city on Föhr island from the southeast, has oldest seaside resort, celebrated in 1993? 1994? the 175th year jubilee (anniversary).
p.60 Königshafen, the most northern point of Sylt island and North Frisia.
p.61 Hörnum, town on south end of Sylt island.
p.62 Amrum island, center left on map on p. 2.
p.63 Wittdün, town on the southern end of Amrum island.
p.64 Hooge island from the north with Pellworm in the background.
p.65 Hooge island west of Bredstedt during a flood. Caption: When by storm the water spilled over the summer dike, the 9 docks of Hooge Island swim in a large bathtub. In the upper area of the photo at low tide is the top of the dike and the sea.
p.66 Habel, smallest of the North Frisian islands, west of Bredstedt, off the coast. The only house became a bird sanctuary.
p.67 Oland island, south of Dagebüll, with 14 houses.
p.68 Strucklahnungshörn’s harbor, on the peninsula of Nordstsrand west of Husum, an island ferry in port.
p.69 Pellworm’s church with stone tower was built in the 11th century. The church fell down in 1611, leaving the tower which is now a landmark.
p.70 a long-ago flooded area, now sand.
p.71 Südfall island, way west of Husum, where storm floods have the land and docks worn out. Now a seabird sanctuary.
Place names in alphabetical order and the page numbers where they appear:
Adolfskoog 39 Norderoog 36
Amrum 62 & 63 North Frisia 2 & 38
Bredstedt 50 Oland 67
Dagebull 53 & 58 Pellworm 69
Eiderstedt 7, 39 – 44 St. Peter-Ording 40 & 41
Fohr 33 & 59 Sonke Nissen-Koog 21 & 52
Garding 42 Strucklahnungshorn 68
Gotteskoog 25 & 56 Suderoog 12, 13, 45
Grode 36 Sudfall 37 & 71
Habel 66 Sylt 27,29,30,57,60,61
Hamburger Hallig 51 Tonning 43
Hooge 64 & 65 Westerhever 44
Hornum 61 Wilhelm-Lubke Koog 25
Husum 47,16,46-49. text p.15 Wittdun 63
Leck 55 Wyk on Fohr 59